The protocol of the conference of the military leadership in Amasia in June 1919 can be considered as the first written declaration of the resistance of the Turkish people against Allied decisions.

It was then that the convocation of the National Congress in Sebastea was decided, and military decisions were taken regarding the organization of the resistance. The Mustapha Kemal movement, the National Defence, was by now a fact and its leader was summoning the leading personalities of the capital to take part in it.

Kemal toured Anatolia and called the Turks to take up the fight against foreigners. He appeared loyal to the Sultan, whom he considered a prisoner of the foreigners in Constantinople, unable to react without the mobilization of his people.
The British demanded his dismissal from the army due to his revolutionary activity. Kemal resigned and went to Erzurum, where the Congress organized by the Society for the Defence of the Rights of Anatolia took place at the end of July 1919. This Congress, a preliminary event before the main Congress at Sebastea, recognized Kemal as general leader, announced the slogan 'Turkey for Turks' and expressed its opposition to the partitioning of the country. At the same time it continued to declare its devotion to the Sultan, in his attempt to win over the majority of the Turkish people.

At the National Assembly of Sebastea on 20 August/4 September 1919 the decisions of Erzurum were ratified. It was also declared that the creation of a Greek state in Aydin, Magnesia and Balikesir would not be accepted. Kemal's proposal that they be represented at the Peace Conference as a nation and not as an Empire was accepted and these claims were grounded on the declared right for self-determination.

The Sultan's government reacted to the declarations of Kemal by dispatching against him Kurdish troops, which were repelled. He agreed to the holding of elections and appointed a pro-Kemalist Grand Vizier. The new parliament of nationalist majority voted in favour of the National Pact epitomizing the principles of Erzurum and Sebastea and practically annulled the principles of the terms of the Mudros armistice.

The capture of Constantinople by the Allies in March 1920, the dissolution of the Parliament and the declaration of martial law rendered the claims of Kemal for imprisonment of the Sultan absolutely plausible amd attracted more supporters to the Kemalist movement. On 10/23 April 1920 the First Grand National Assembly was convened in Ankara; it decided on the formation of a provisional government under the presidency of Kemal.

With the formation of the government in Ankara, Turkey was divided into two camps. The situation deteriorated into a civil war, as pro-Sultan coups broke out, possibly under the instigitation of the Allies, which in turn brought about a reaction on the part of the nationalists.