A growing interest in folklore in this period led scholars to research and pursue those elements in Greece's traditional rural culture that could be considered survivals of ancient Greek culture.

In 1909 the Greek Folklore Society was founded and the publication of the periodical Laografia was launched. In its first issue Nikolaos Politis published his famous article 'Laografia' (Folkore), in which he described the development and methodology of this discipline.

Important Greek archaeologists such as Antonis Keramopoulos, Nikolaos Papadakis and Georgios Sotiriadis began their work in this period, conducting excavations throughout Greece and introducing a modern approach to the study of ancient monuments.

Distinguished historians and philologists emerged at beginning of the century; men like Konstantinos Amantos, Nikos Veis and Konstantinos Romaios presented their first research findings in the field of medieval and modern Greek intellectual life.

The translation work of Ioannis Gryparis is of considerable importance. He was involved mostly with classical dramatic poetry: he translated the all the works of Aeschylus, Sophocles and Eurypides' plays, Bacchants. His translations gave a boost to the revival of ancient tragedy in the moden Greek scene. Apart from the Greek tragics he translated Homer, Pindar, Plato and also Latin writers. His singular language, consisting of unusual and sonorous folk words, sounds bizarre to modern ears.